7 Recomendaciones de bioseguridad en las granjas avícolas

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7 Recomendaciones de bioseguridad en las granjas avícolas

Según la organización de las naciones unidas, en 2030 el consumo de proteína animal seguirá en aumento hasta alcanzar los 37 kg anuales per cápita, lo cual representa una gran oportunidad para el sector avícola pero también es un reto, pues los consumidores son cada vez más exigentes y están más informados, lo que nos lleva a buscar la continua mejoría en los diferentes aspectos relacionados a la producción.

Una de las claves es tener consciencia del impacto e importancia que la bioseguridad representa, para prevenir la entrada y transmisión de agentes patógenos que puedan afectar la sanidad en las granjas animales. La bioseguridad es fundamental debido a que ayuda a la disminución de problemas sanitarios, proporciona un aumento en la productividad y mayor aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales

La definición de bioseguridad (Bio= Vida y Seguridad=Protección) hace referencia al mantenimiento de un ambiente libre de microrganismos o al menos con una carga mínima que no obstaculice la producción animal. Estas medidas preventivas aplicadas de manera sistemática y permanente son la opción más económica y segura para la prevención de enfermedades, pues sin un plan de bioseguridad ponemos en riesgo a los animales, al personal encargado de su manejo y al consumidor final, lo que resulta en pérdidas económicas y en la mala calidad del producto.

Los planes de bioseguridad deben ser prácticos y flexibles para que puedan adaptarse a los avances tecnológicos de la producción animal, estos deben incluir el orden y la higiene, la disciplina, el manejo ambiental, el control de plagas, entre otras acciones. También hay que estar atentos a variables como el estrés, cambios de temperatura o limitaciones de agua y/o alimento.

A continuación, siete recomendaciones claves para las granjas avícolas:

1.Ubicación estratégica de la granja: Deben ubicarse en zonas rurales, aisladas de las zonas urbanas y ojalá que las vías de acceso sean de uso exclusivo del personal que trabaja en ella. Tener en cuenta el impacto ambiental que genera la producción avícola.

2.Control de animales extraños a la explotación: Tener especial cuidado de roedores, pájaros y animales domésticos como perros y gatos, ya que son vehículos trasmisores de enfermedades.

3.Áreas y equipos limpios: La limpieza y desinfección es fundamental para el cumplimiento de los objetivos de bioseguridad, realizar procesos de higienización de las instalaciones, de limpieza de equipos fijos y desmontables, de los tanques de agua, entre otros.

4.Evitar el estrés de los animales: El sistema inmunológico de las aves puede verse afectado por situaciones estresantes, por eso se debe vigilar cualquier factor estresante: ruidos, olores, exceso de luz, presencia de otros animales, etc.

5.Programas de vacunación y medicación de los animales: Todas las plantas deben contar con un médico veterinario que lleve un calendario estricto de vacunación, que conozca la situación específica de los animales y que utilice siempre material desinfectado.

6.Periodos de descanso entre lote y lote: Realizar un descanso de la producción (vacío sanitario), desocupando los galpones de animales y así cuanto mayor sea este período de descanso, más reducimos los riesgos.

7. Eliminación de Aves muertas: La mortalidad de las aves en las granjas debe ser descartada adecuadamente para lo cual se pueden emplear: pozos sépticos, incineradores o compostaje.

Un plan de bioseguridad bien aplicado es una gran inversión si se compara con las pérdidas que genera la enfermedad y la despoblación. Así que jamás deberían verse como un costo innecesario o impuesto sino como una adquisición que generará rentabilidad en el corto y mediano plazo.

En próximas publicaciones ampliaremos un poco más los tips enunciados y daremos otras recomendaciones importantes acerca de las buenas prácticas que toda granja avícola debe considerar para su buen funcionamiento.

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Fuente: Premex,  Albéitar Portal Veterinario

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